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Warship 2022 Abstracts

Please note that other abstracts will be confirmed on a later date.

Resolving the Impact of Ship’s Design on Deck and Well-deck Launch and Recovery Operations by applying of Quiescent Period Prediction (QPP)

B Ferrier, R Taylor, RN, M R Belmont, J T Christmas, L Fedrick, Hoffman Engineering

One of the most challenging tasks in the deployment of ship-based manned and unmanned VTOL aviation is the launch and recovery and deck handling operational performance on smaller ship platforms.  The same may be said of ship Well-deck-based surface boats, like Rhib and LCACs.  The ship’s above waterline design coupled by the propulsion systems, affects ship’s motion and ship motion induced air wake behaviour. 

MoD/University of Exeter’s Quiescent Period Prediction (QPP) Program Aims to deliver technologies which support launch and recovery from Naval assets, particularly in higher sea states.  

The MoD/University of Exeter’s Quiescent Period Prediction (QPP) system achieves this by using a wave sensor system to measure the sea surface several hundred meters in advance of the ship. From the measured sea surface, a short-term deterministic wave model can be constructed allowing the wave system to be propagated to the ship's location. The ship's response to the wave spectrum is calculated to determine the level of quiescence at the time of encounter.  The results are mapped dynamically on speed-polar visual graphics providing the ship’s best course to steer to ensure encountering the quiescent zone in a timely manner.  Operating over deck whilst the ship is experiencing a quiescent period normally has the secondary effect of reduced air wake confusion.  This is owing to fewer ship structure excursions into and out of the air flow.  To better define off deck airflow around the ship a future QPP improvement will be the development and installation of a Doppler LiDAR federate.

Survivability, Adaptability and offboard Systems

D Manley, University College London

Recent years have seen an explosion in the use of offboard air, surface and subsurface vehicles , both remote and autonomous in nature, to extend the adaptability and capabilities of ships, submarines and task groups. Whilst the opportunity for their use is clear the impact that they have on platform and force survivability is not clear. Changes arising from some assumptions appear attractive, but may be standing future naval forces into danger. This paper examines the scope for offboard systems and their impact on survivability, seen through the lens of historical examples such as the French "jeune ecole" in the 19th century and the development of the aircraft carrier in the 20th that parallel the great changes seen today. The paper examines the impact that change had on the threat faced by naval forces and the ensuing effect on ship design, then draws conclusions for the modern ship designer and operator.

The much sought-after coating for the sustainable future of warships

M van Ruiten, Hydrex

Coatings are used in the shipping industry to improve hull performance and to protect the vessel. Optimal performance can be achieved by preventing biofouling and having a smooth hull with no paint degradation. To prevent biofouling, traditional antifouling coatings gradually leach highly toxic biocides into the aquatic environment. However, with current systems, biofouling still has the change to attach to the ship’s hull despite the fact that these coatings have a significant environmental impact. These coatings will last for 3-5 years before it must be replaced as paint degradation develops over time. This results in a life cycle of re-applicating the coating every drydock session and sailing with excessive drag reduction, which involves significantly on fuel consumption, material resources, associated transport and overall costs. An alternative, named as the Surface Treated Composites (STC), is investigated in this paper. STCs are designed for regular in-water cleaning throughout the lifetime of the coating without the need for reapplication. Regular in-water cleaning results in a significant drag reduction as the hull can be smooth whenever is needed. STCs therefore offer a viable antifouling strategy that is entirely non-toxic. Application of STC’s results in substantial fuel savings and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. This results in economical benefits for the shipowner or the shipping company as fuel is saved significantly and no costs are involved for repainting every couple of years. This results in the fact that the STC coating is not only environmentally safe but also cost-effective.

The Viability of Low-Carbon Fuels & Green Technologies for the Front-Line Naval Vessel

S Newman, BMT

The Net-Zero challenge needs a global effort across all sectors to achieve its objectives. The energy consumed through Naval operations, and so the greenhouse gases emitted, is a part of the problem and so improvements are needed. In addition, naval vessels often act as travelling embassies so need to exemplify the values and principles of the country they represent, including their commitments to Net-Zero.
The decarbonisation of the commercial marine sector is starting to pick up pace, with numerous fuels and technologies being developed, trialled, and implemented which both improve the efficiency of vessels and reduce or eliminate their dependence in fossil fuels.
The front-line naval vessel has a unique set of requirements and constraints however which differ to those for commercial shipping. This means it is not possible to just fast-follow the commercial sector- there needs to be tailored solutions that work for defence, ideally taken from or facilitated by commercial innovation. This paper will explore what evolving 'green solutions' can realistically be applied to a front-line naval vessel and in what timescales, and what operational compromises may have to be made to fulfil green ambitions.

Obsolescence management to enable supportability for the Autonomous Warship

T Flint, BMT

Rapid obsolescence is often a consequence of rapid technology development. Modern warships are operating in an era of increased technological development, with complex systems having a redevelopment cycle significantly shorter than the lifetime of the platform. The Autonomous Warship concept is one such area and designers must take this rapid development into account to ensure Navies remain at the forefront of technology without early systems experiencing a tsunami of obsolescence. Advances in AI and mechatronics result in capability improvements, but also increase obsolescence driven waste and supportability issues. This means that effective, proactive obsolescence management is more important than ever to maintain capability, reduce environmental waste and eliminate unnecessary costs. This paper will seek to outline options to increase system adaptability and reduce the looming obsolescence risks of technological advancement.

Practical Ship Design Considerations for Mission Modularity

A Kimber and L Griffiths, BMT

The use of modular systems has become a byword for the “future warship”, in which it is envisaged that warships will embark capabilities according to mission or even re-configure mid deployment.  This is often seen as enabling the separation of the “simple” ship and “complex” mission systems.

This concept has already been delivered, notably by the Danish and US navies, but as more navies seek to adopt this approach and expand the concept further, ship designers need to explore the practical limitations, compromises and issues more extensively adopting modularity will create in the next generation of ships as they evolve from concepts to actual designs.

In this paper, the authors explore some of the issues and compromises which occur when designing with a more modular approach to capabilities.  This looks forward after the historical view offered in the earlier Warship 2019 paper “When is the Adaptable or Multi-Role Ship the Right Answer?”.

Missions require not just specific equipment which can be modularised, they drive ship characteristics and therefore a multi-mission modular warship will have to address the combinations and potential conflicts that this may involve.  Aspects which will need to be considered include embarking and stowing mission modules which may require different access, environments and services; is a single “box” practical or even preferable; how module spaces or mission bays will impact the ships design, personnel access and layout impacts; how overall mission survivability is influenced; the impact on ship size; and module support philosophies.

The Effect of varying an Aspect of Performance in Early Stage Ship Design: An SSK Example of enhancing Warship Supportability

M H Mukti, R J Pawling and D J Andrews, Marine Research Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London

Distributed Ship Service Systems (DS3) can be a major constraint on the location of hull berth unit locations and transverse bulkheads, which are essential for access to conduct maintenance and thus contribute to submarine Sustainability. The paper proposes a new early-stage ship design (ESSD) approach that would aid the designer to consider DS3 physically and logically much earlier in the design process. This approach is termed the Network Block Approach and merges the advantages of the UCL 3D physically based ship synthesis Design Building Block (DBB) approach and the network-based approach for distributed ship service systems (DS3) synthesis already proposed for naval combatants. The proposed Network Block Approach enables the modelling of individual spaces to locate and zone various DS3 components and routings for hull unit boundaries and major bulkheads, which could improve maintenance. A discussion on the importance of DS3 routing is to warship Sustainability through the complexity of a submarine design example and how the proposed approach enables this to be explored in ESSD is presented.

Comprehensive Numerical Hydrodynamic Campaign to Evaluate Frigate Concept Hullform

F Gamboa, BAE Systems Maritime Naval Ships

A hullform was developed for a new frigate concept based on the parent hullform of an existing design. The new hullform is able to provide more payload and adaptability capability to the customer.

Initial bare hull resistance to the new hullform concept, which has an increased beam compared to the parent hullform, was estimated using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics).

However, after the final fairing process, a complete hydrodynamic campaign was needed to measure the hydrodynamic characteristics of the new concept.

BAE Systems Naval Ships used, for the first time, numerical methods such as CFD to perform a complete hydrodynamic campaign on a hullform. The hydrodynamic campaign included Bare Hull Resistance, Appended Resistance, Propeller Nominal Wake Survey, Self- Propulsion, Appendage Alignment, Seakeeping and finally Manoeuvring.

For each one of the analysed components of the campaign, a validation was made against the available experimental results for the parent hullform, in order to de-risk and support the chosen CFD methodology.

The validation showed a very good agreement. Therefore, the physical and discretisation modelling, used during the validation process, was directly used into the new hullform hydrodynamic campaign.

The results for the new concept frigate showed that despite the larger beam, the hydrodynamic performance of the new hullform is very similar to the parent hullform.

Consequently, the new hullform design offers the costumer more capability without compromising the hydrodynamic performance.

Examining the impact of future alternative fuels on naval vessels

R Pawling, University College London

Emissions regulation aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions is driving commercial research into alternative fuels such as ammonia, methanol and hydrogen. Whilst naval ships, being government owned vessels, are exempt from this regulation, the ability to operate on such fuels may become a requirement for future combatants and dual-fuel arrangements have already entered into operation on patrol vessels, which spend much of their time within ecologically sensitive home waters. These fuels present major challenges for naval use, such as lower energy density, increased toxicity, increased flammability and explosion risk.

Recent UCL MSc ship designs have been set the requirement to operate on future fuels likely to be found for commercial use, the concept being that cost and availability will drive adoption of these energy sources during peacetime, with reserves of F-76 retained for use in wartime where its safety advantages are most valuable. These studies indicated that dual-fuel concepts are viable, and they are described in a separate paper. Being point designs developed in a teaching context, there was limited opportunity to determine the “delta” in design size and cost for adoption of the dual-fuel approach.

This paper describes the findings of a concept study using the ZEOLIT early-stage design aid, previously used to investigate the impact of large railguns on small combatants. This study investigated the impact of alternative fuel and dual fuel concepts on vessel concepts representing current and near-term designs and requirements. The paper presents the study approach, overall findings and some specific aspects of the designs.

The Zoom Years: UCL MSc student warship designs through the pandemic

R Pawling, D Manley and N Bradbeer, University College London

The global pandemic placed enormous strain on teaching, both for staff and students. This was most keenly felt in group projects, such as the UCL postgraduate ship design exercise, the 2019-20 cohort in particular facing intense disruption as they switched “modes” half-way through the year. Despite this, the students were able to develop some innovative designs to meet challenging requirements. This paper will provide an overview of the main themes for the last two years, both in the requirements set by staff and particularly the design response, which has included aspects such as optional crewing and future fuels. The particularly innovative designs will be described in more detail, concluding an update on recent and future developments in the course that are most relevant to naval design.

Full and Semi Automated Early Stage Ship Layout Generation

N Hifi and M Courts, BAE Systems Maritime Naval Ships

The generation of cost-effective ship design solutions to sets of requirements demands a thorough examination of a wide trade space of potential solutions in order to ensure that the ultimately selected solution is the best that can be achieved within an affordable budget. As more options are explored in shorter times then inevitably the degree of detail that can be developed for each solution will decrease, potentially leaving risk that later development will increase the anticipated cost. Early stage concept design tools are therefore evolving to provide more detail and analysis faster. The importance of ship layout in early stage ship sizing has long been recognised and methods are required to generate confidence as quickly as possible, that a practical compartment arrangement can be achieved on any given concept. The paper outlines the general approaches used, and presents example outputs, from a tool developed to make use of genetic algorithms and techniques already proven on existing system generation and analysis toolsets used by BAE Systems Maritime Naval Ships. The toolset adopts a staged approach involving a completely flexible mix of automated and manual operations to firstly allocate compartments to zones within a ship and secondly arrange the compartments within those zones. The tool supports the capture and utilisation of knowledge from experienced designers and enables very rapid generation of preliminary ship layout options within an integrated concept trade space exploration process.

How Digitalization can help Naval Ships during all design stages

R P Fernández, Siemens Digital Industries Software

The Fourth Industrial Revolution has aided the expansion of many technologies in the marine industry, and more in particular in the naval one, with applications like Augmented, Virtual and Mixed Reality, Digital Twin or Artificial Intelligence, which require CAD and PLM tools and all surrounding solutions.

To execute all these tools in an agile way, it requires a system which support different connections with smart devices, i.e. Internet of Ships (IoS), which can log on to the data, producing and changing them, in a different layer which modifies any basic information created by the CAD tool or any other application in the shipyard.

This network should be secure, but also open to allow distributed work, which must be tracked such that all design or process modifications are recorded an open, transparent, trusted and non-modifiable working method for all stakeholders, like: shipyard, classification society and MoD for example.

Results of the design should be easily integrated with future manufacturing methods like 3D printing, generating printing orders directly from the CAD model. Shipbuilding phases involve design and manufacturing, but an integrated Industry 4.0 CAD tool should also be involved in operation, maintenance and scrap phases, i.e. it must cover all the vessel lifecycle end to end, from design to decommission.

This paper briefly summarizes how digitalization technologies may be applied to the naval shipbuilding, whether through direct integration or in connected periphery applications.

A novel and tested Fast Displacement Monohull, Catamaran, Trimaran Hull shape for improved fuel consumption and habitability of future Warships

M De Giacomo, Aviomarine Corporation​

The paper describes the Hydrodynamics characteristics of a novel type of Fast Displacement hull called DYNAc Hull – Dynamic Natural Air-cushion, which exceeds the critical speed of the typical displacement hull. The Technology begun with Experimental Test in Naval Tank and after results of  3-dimensional CFD code are compared with the towing tank data and a full scale test models of 14.5 m and 9 m. The scalability of the new design is analyzed for a range of ship lengths, and compared with reference displacement and planing hulls. The study aims to demonstrate the advantages of the design for a wide speed range => 0 to 40-:-50 kts with optimum seakeeping, from Boat/Vessel of 3,15 m up to 200 m.

An important improvement is that the Vessel Lift/Heave Up.The main focus will be on substantial fuel savings of about -40% compared to actual Vessels, due to significant reduction of  Hydrodynamics resistance, adding important available space improvement that count about +25%.
Other important aspects such as the reduction of wave making and noise signature, will be presented.

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