Crest of the Royal National Institution of Naval Architects - Click to return to the homepage



Marintec_New_July_December 2022


Palfinger August 2022

IJME 299

Paper title: Content Analysis of Human Factors in Ships Design



V Rumawas & B E Asbjørnslett, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway


Research shows that more than 80% of accidents at sea were caused by human related factors. Some experts implied that less than adequate design is one significant element that may lead to human errors. There are several ways to discover whether a design has considered human factors, i.e., to refer to the design specification, to consult the designers, to conduct a direct observation through a site visit or through a model, to interview the users, or to look into the system that regulates the design. This paper applied a content analysis methodology to explore how human factors have been covered in the design of marine systems. Various documents such as rules, regulations, design guidelines, standards and other texts have been analysed. The results indicate that there are extensive references that cover human factors in designing ships. They are published with different degrees of enforcement, some are prescriptive and some are obligatory but still optional. The topic is developing very rapidly. A more assertive measure is required from the regulators to endorse human factors into implementation.  


Transactions RINA, Vol 156, Part A3, International Journal Maritime Engineering, Jul-Sep 2014 

DOI Number

DOI No: 10.3940/rina.ijme.2014.a3.299

Search and Order IJME papers

All International Journal of Maritime Engineering (IJME) papers are listed in the RINA Publications Database. You can search the database by author name and paper title. Publications may be ordered and paid for online. Other publications are also listed, some of which may be downloaded free of charge. Follow the link to Search Publications & Order.

RINA membership

Teinbridge Propeller

Euronaval Apr - Oct 2022

Herbert Engineering

Uni Stratchclyde June 2021

Metstrade May 2022