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Palfinger August 2022

ICCAS 2022 Abstracts

Please note that other abstracts will be confirmed on a later date.

Automated IoT equipment Installation Design & Cable laying instructions for shipbuilding

A Lalechos, LePlan

Decarbonisation of shipping is an ongoing process that can be tackled with several different approaches. New automation systems such as BWTS or Scrubbers, as well as IoT equipment, are nowadays part of modern vessels to improve monitoring and optimise vessels' operation. The addition of new systems increases the size and complexity of the design process. The installation of such systems commonly requires interfacing with major vessels' equipment to be found at different areas of the vessel such as Bridge, ECR, ER or main Deck. These new systems often require extensive cabling, custom electrical/electronic design and an extensive BOM. The complete and detailed design of such a system can take several days or weeks. LePlan framework allows the electrical & electronic design process to be completed in a few seconds instead of weeks following all norms and standards. The designer of such a system only needs to fill up a dynamic form with the project's specifics and the LePlan algorithms automatically convert this info into fully detailed Electrical Drawings, Part Lists, Cable Laying lists, Installation & Commissioning instructions as well as Installation Manuals without any human intervention. An overview of the LePlan framework is presented in the paper.

Emergent Simulation Techniques in the Development of the Quiescent Period Prediction (QPP) Flight Deck Motion Forecasting Tool

B Ferrier, Hoffman Engineering

Ministry of Defence / University of Exeter's Quiescent Period Prediction (QPP) purpose is to provide ship motion conditions and motion predictions with sufficient forecasted time (over a minute) to launch, recover and complete other motion sensitive tasks regardless of the seaway.  The specific objectives are: (i) is to both give the operator guidance on the optimum ship's heading and speed to initiate launch/recovery vehicular activity and (ii) to predict the quietest period of flight deck motion (for safest recovery) over timescales of typically 60 to 120 seconds ahead. to expand ship UAS operating deck limits to approximately Sea State +6. 
This article describes the simulation techniques used in the development of the QPP system tool. If is based and operates within a High-Level Architecture (HLA) application allowing plug and play of various measurement federates such as a Wave Radar system. It is used to map remote sea surfaces several hundred meters in advance of the ship to enable the computation of predictions of the future wave forces acting on the virtual vessel. Such technologies have "look ahead" time horizons measured in minutes and are typically designed to identify "Quiescent Periods". These are "the safest recovery periods" for launch and recovery and make it possible to safely execute an operation when the "mean" prevailing conditions exceed the traditionally considered safe limits.
This article describes Proof-of-concept simulation test procedures, timely seaway mapping and ship motion computed characteristics specifically designed to complete a motion sensitive task like UAS launch and recovery.

ACV (Acoustic Control Vantage)

R Taylor, IMI Truflo Marine Limited

IMI is developing a range of noise reducing solutions for the Naval market utilising the latest advanced manufacturing technologies such as 3d printing, ball machining and electron beam welding. The aim to increase the operability of submarines whilst remaining undetectable. ACV is leveraging IMI's vast experience of designing high integrity valves and actuators for submarines, and IMI CCI's experience in noise attenuating valves.
ACV utilises multi-stage and multi-path pressure drop geometry to reduce fluid borne noise by controlling fluid velocity within the valve trim, and thereby reducing cavitation and turbulence. ACV has multiple patents pending for novel techniques to reduce transient noise in ball valves during the operating cycle, whilst still maintaining all the traditional benefits of a ball valve when in the fully open position. ACV valves will also include the latest technology in combatting biofouling and corrosion. This could include but not limited to specific coatings and material, self-cleaning mechanisms, and grid blow systems.
Based on existing laboratory test data carried out in-line with MIL-STD-1474D and MIL-STD-740-2, these patented designs are anticipated to reduce valve noise in service by at least 10-20 dBA. The latest range of ACV test trials will be carried out in late 2021 and early 2022.
These designs can be bespoke valve solutions to optimise valve noise, or they can be retrofitted to reduce noise in an existing on-board valve. ACV can work with system engineers to understand the operation of any submarine system and provide bespoke solutions to any fluid borne noise problem.

Plan, Do, Check, Act: Enabling the Deming Cycle for Ship Production

C Zerbst, Prostep

Managing shipyards production poses a permanent challenge. Preparing actions to be executed for example in 6 months requires a lot of guesswork, as the exact product structure has not been designed yet. The information basis improves over time, but even planning the next week is quite an undertaking. The large-scale product, distributed production sites, late changes requested by customers, production failures, or missing deliveries are only a few obstacles to name. These make it difficult to acquire a full understanding of the situation and plan optimal steps with a reasonable effort and in due time.

A joint research project called ProProS run by Lürssen Yard, RWTH Aachen, and PROSTEP seek to improve this situation. The goal is to implement a real-time enabled planning system specifically for ship production. To achieve this goal, we want to provide enough information about the todays situation as well as insight into possible outcomes of current planning. This allows production planners to run a full Deming cycle on a daily basis. Doing so requires tight integration with existing design systems for assembly planning as well as receiving status feedback from production. Insight collected on the currently performed production steps is also feeding a machine learning component. Its result is used to achieve better estimates on the production resources needed for example in six months.

A route planning method for coastal navigation of small ships

D Jeong, Seoul National University

The route planning method has been proposed and developed in various fields such as robotics, navigation for vehicles, computer games, etc. A route planning for ship navigation should consider multiple purposes for finding the route depending on the types of ships. Especially, small ships are mostly operated near the coastal area and used for personal purposes. From this point of view, the resolution of the map for route planning should be high to avoid obstacles in the coastal area for small ships. In addition, various objects on the sea should be presented on the map efficiently. In this study, the route planning method for small ships such as yachts and ferries was proposed. For this, the quadtree grid was selected as the data structure for the high-resolution map instead of the uniform grid because the quadtree grid can represent the specific region in more detail by dividing only the desired part of the map. For personal use, routes for navigation should be provided within a short time. Therefore, the computational speed of route planning should be fast. HPA* (Hierarchical Pathfinding A*) was applied for faster route planning. And S-57 prescribed by IHO (International Hydrographic Organization) has various regulations for coastal navigation. Therefore, various methods were additionally considered to satisfy the regulations. The proposed method was applied for route planning in coastal areas in the Republic of Korea. From the results, the efficiency of the proposed method was evaluated compared with the existing route planning algorithm.

Coupling a high fidelity near surface effects model into PARAMARINE S4

P Crossland and C Forrest, QinetiQ Ltd

When a submarine is operating at depths typical of those required when using the periscope, snorting during the period of recharging the batteries or, in the some cases, at slow to zero speed whilst hovering, the submarine can experience complex oscillatory motion due to higher order sea loads. The second order vertical plane loads can manifest themselves as a mean and time varying suction force effectively causing the submarine to be drawn to the surface risking broaching and increasing the possibility of detection. Current methodologies for modelling near surface effects tend to utilize coefficient-based methods to represent the first and second order wave forces on a submarine body. These empirical methods may be suitable for some applications but are not able to capture all the effects of the submarine operating close to the free surface. As the body approaches the free surface, the flow field around the submarine is modified by the gravitational wave effects, changing the pressure distribution across the body and hence the forces and moments. This change in force is dependent upon the shape of the body and the environment and, therefore, it is impractical that a coefficients based approach could cover all these scenarios to any great level of fidelity.

 This paper presents a potential flow method for quantifying the hydrodynamic loads on a fully appended submarine when in proximity and under the influence of surface waves. The paper presents some validation of the method and describes its integration with the PARAMARINE S4 submarine manoeuvring software.

Ona: a prognostics and health management tool for marine systems

C Velasco-Gallego and I Lazakis, University of Strathclyde

The modernisation of technology is revolutionising market intelligence within the shipping sector with regards to automation; Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) software systems; power, propulsion, and energy; and communications. Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) approaches in particular are gaining popularity within the recent years due to the growing need for enhancements in ship automation and intelligence. Such enhancements would enable an increase in efficiency, reliability, profitability, and performance of the vessel, facilitating emissions reduction during its operational lifetime whilst optimising the Operations & Maintenance (O&M) activities of the marine systems. Although PHM technologies have been widely investigated and achieved a certain level of maturity in industries such as aerospace, manufacturing, and railway, it is an undeniable fact that the shipping sector is still in its infancy in this regard and further research is required in this matter. Accordingly, this study presents Ona, a prognostics and health management tool for marine systems. Ona is primarily constituted by two modules: diagnostic analytics, which determines the current state of marine systems, and prognostics analytics, which aims to predict the Remaining Useful Life (RUL), thus establishing the future health state of marine systems. To analyse the performance of Ona, a case study of a diesel generator of a tanker ship is introduced.

Automatic Data Extraction and Unfolding for Ship Hull Plates on CATIA

Y Hu, Wuhan University of Technology

In view of the current low efficiency of ship production and the shortcomings of various software in the unfolding of ship hull plates, in this study, a method that automatic data extraction and unfolding of ship hull plates is proposed. This method has carried out by the add-on development of the Component Application Architecture (CAA) on CATIA 3DEXPERIENCE platform (3DE platform). The sequence of the method is as the following: Firstly, the model is switched into the editable mode. Then, the file tree is traversed for judging the type of parts and identifying the geometric features, and the intersection lines between surfaces and the structural lines are generated. Thirdly, the neutral layer of parts are extracted and the process information (e.g. margin, compensation and bevel) are added. Finally, the information extracted are integrated into an exchange file for unfolding or processing. Different methods are proposed for flat plate, curved plate and combined plate. As for the double-curved hull plate which cannot be directly unfolded, an approximate unfolding method of dividing the plate into strips and small triangles and then splicing them together is proposed according to the forming method of plate. The test result shows that this method can reliably extract the plate parts and unfold the curved plate.

Dynamic optimization of port operations onboard a typical Ro-Ro vessel, aided by a smart decision support system

C S Uppal, Cochin University of Technology

The speed of a Ro-RO vessel's operation is governed by the time it spends on port in order to undergo various operation like loading & unloading. The increase in vessel size and cargo demand has led to an inherent need of better planning which as of now is very chaotic and un-standardized, hence rendering simple port operations, not only a havoc but requiring a large amount of unnecessary ballast. This has led to an increased consumption of time while leaving a bad impact on the environment. Not only thus the port operations have become more labor intensive but also require sensitive calculations at various stages, thus increasing the probability of accidents onboard and on port.
The paper proposes the use of mathematically modeled simulation as the basis of decision-making, aiding various port operations associated with Ro-Ro vessels, to achieve higher performance, reduced time-consumption & decreased environmental impact. Furthermore, it provides us with various calculation intensive parameters related to the vessel's cargo which would otherwise be very laborious and time consuming to calculate.
The study approaches the problem at hand in a variable - specific program-oriented simulation taking a general Ro-RO vessel design as a template. This makes the application of the developed mathematical model universal & flexible over a wide range of Ro-Ro & Ro-pax vessels. The automation process hence developed is not specific to any particular Ro-RO vessel but is rather concentrated at optimizing the operation being performed.
The main objective of this study is to establish a load planning model for a Ro-Ro vessel, optimizing trim, heel and keeping a close & strict watch on structural integrity of the vessel leading to a reduction of time & pollution caused by the operation.

Automated Generation and Low Effort Authoring of Commissioning Content in the Maritime Industry

A Elzalabany, Technical University of Hamburg

Commissioning in the maritime industry is a long crucial phase in which all essential components in the ship are tested for faults and defects before a final acceptance form is signed by the client. Due to the variety of components in a ship, and the complex hierarchical structure of such components, it is typical to have thousands of tests that should be performed throughout the commissioning phase. For every new ship, content creators initially spend hours preparing the commissioning tests by reading technical documents, extracting relevant information, and applying the gathered knowledge to the unique equipment configuration in the ship. This leads to high preparation effort and planning mistakes (e.g. unconsidered dependencies), and as a result, commissioning and the ship building process as a whole may be delayed.

This paper lays the foundation for automating the process of authoring commissioning content for maritime productions. The paper presents a digital modelling approach for maritime components, which facilitates the development of commissioning-specialized software. The model shown in this paper takes textual and geometrical information of a ship component as input data, and produces generalized commissioning templates that can be used to automatically generate commissioning tests. Moreover, the paper discusses the potential of reusing commissioning templates in order to reduce the initial manual effort for new ships.

Digital Enterprise Platform Enables Efficient Shipbuilding

J Bitomsky, Prostep

Building commercial or naval vessels successfully is a highly complex process. Thus, sufficient project management faces multiple challenges: the integration of the various domains and partners involved, maturity management at project milestones as well as efficient change management due to requirement changes during the project. Without a proper handling of these challenges project targets (quality, cost and time) will not be achieved and are leading to an increased project risk. In that manner sufficient project management is a key enabler for shipbuilding.
During the recent years, an increasing trend of merging shipyards and existing shipyard groups to even bigger shipyard groups has been recognized. The reduction of costs by enabling synergies is one of the main drivers for shipyards. By an alignment of processes, a significant reduction of costs can be achieved. However, any operational optimization requires seamless IT integration to ensure information access throughout the entire shipbuilding and distribution processes.
To meet these requirements a digital enterprise platform supporting the entire process from initial design to operations from information as well as process perspective is needed. Building the digital ship model requires information flow as well as traceability across a variety of authoring and management systems. For this purpose, PROSTEP developed OpenPDM SHIP to enable integration as a product for the marine and offshore industries.
The present paper provides insights into real shipyard requirements from around the globe on IT integration to cope with the challenges above. Further, our experiences on technical solutions for seamless integration are provided.

Obstacle Detection and Tracking of Unmanned Surface Vehicles Using Multi-view Images in Marine Environment

J Park, Seoul National University

The unmanned surface vehicle (USV) is recently getting more attention with the development of autonomous navigation technology. The USV operates for various purposes, such as marine reconnaissance and survey, and it can operate as a group according to specific scenarios. In this study, a method of obstacle detection and tracking of USVs using multi-view images in marine environment was proposed. We assumed each USV detected marine obstacles by the camera mounted on itself and tracked the position and speed of the obstacles. For this, the YOLO algorithm, which is one of the real-time object detection algorithms based on CNN (Convolutional Neural Network), was adopted after fine tuning. Subsequently, the relative position of the detected obstacle was estimated through the position estimation algorithm of a monocular camera. Then, the position, speed, and course of each obstacle were tracked using the extended Kalman filter. Finally, the accuracy of the tracking results was improved through the data fusion of the tracked data from multiple USVs. The proposed method was validated through the actual field test using multiple USVs. As a result, it was confirmed that the proposed method could be useful in detecting and traking the obstacles in maritime environment.

Digital Platform Enabling Robotic Survey, Repair & Agile Manufacturing of Ships and Watercraft

F Santo, Lancaster University

In this work we developed a digital platform that has the potential to connect the European shipbuilding and ship maintenance supply chain & value chain. The platform provides digital design (e.g. Computer Aided Drawing) and simulation functionalities (e.g. Digital Twin) that allows users to design modular ship units and components for fabrication, repairs and maintenance. The platform also provides digital connectivity tool, which facilitates communication and collaboration between the European ship operators, the European Shipbuilding community and maintenance stakeholders, though the secure industry 4.0 information sharing support. The digital tool promotes collaborative production engineering approach. As a part of this work, we are also developing underwater Friction Stir Welding (FSW) robot and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) in order to survey, repair and maintain part of the ship submerged in water, while it’s under operation. The platform establishes connection with the FSW robot and ROV hardware through the Websocket API. The connection provides two advantages. Firstly, the connection allows real-time data (i.e. numeric and video) from the hardware’s sensors to be feedback to the platform. The platforms data visualisation functionality provides users a real-time representation of these data. The data is also stored in the platforms database for post-processing and future training. Secondly, the connection facilitates the control of both the hardware through an intermediary computer. The digital platform in combination with the robotic solution enables rapid survey, repair and maintenance of ships under water and enhances the competitiveness of the European shipbuilding and maintenance sector in the global market.

Zero Infrastructure Geolocation Of Nearby First Responders On Ro-Ro Vessels

D Zeinalipour, University of Cyprus

The early suppression of fires on ro-ro vessels requires rapid fire identification as a fire of medium growth exponentially reaches 50kW after only 1 minute. Fire patrol members (e.g., able seamen) are asked to act as first responders in such fire incident cases. They do however lack the necessary digital technology for immediate localization, verification and coordination with the bridge and other first responders. Indoor localization requires dense referencing systems (such as Wi-Fi, UWB, Bluetooth antennas), but these technologies require expensive installations and maintenance. Also, Satellite-based localization is obstructed by the bulky steel structures of vessels, so this does not work either. Within the LASH FIRE project, an H2020 funded project (Grant Agreement #814975) in which this publication is framed, research has been carried out to develop a ground-breaking localization technology that requires zero infrastructure using computer vision on commodity smartphone devices attached to the gear of first responders. The developed solution comprises of two steps: (i) Training, where vessel owners supply video recordings that are processed on a deep learning data centre to produce an accurate mapping of non-movable vessel objects to the coordinates of a vessel; and (ii) Localization, where a designated mobile application localizes first responders on a digital map, shares their location, emergency messages and heat scanning images with nearby first responders and the bridge, using a sparse Wi-Fi or Mobile communication network. Our proposed technology streamlines the lengthy fire verification, coordination, and reaction process in the early stages of a fire, improving fire safety.

A Method of Variable Recognition and Connection for Reviewing Ship Regulations

M Kong, Seoul National University

The shipbuilding company requests the ship classifications to inspect a ship to obtain permission to construct or operate. The ship classifications review whether the ship complies with all design regulations by referring to the relevant regulations. Owing to the characteristics of the shipbuilding industry, the relevant design regulations are detailed, interrelated, and complex. Accordingly, reviewing all relevant regulations is difficult for even professional reviewers. Therefore, this study proposed a method of automatically indexing regulations and recognizing the variables to visualize the relationship between each variable and the indexed position. For this, it is necessary to accurately extract and process the components in the regulations distributed in portable document format (PDF). Firstly, we extracted characters, texts, equations, and the table of contents in the regulations using the library for the PDF extraction. Using extracted components, we matched the extracted table of contents and text components with similar components using the Levenshtein-distance algorithm. In addition, the regulations were indexed according to the table of contents. Secondly, the subscript and superscript were separated to recognize variables using the positional relationship of the extracted characters. Finally, the indexed position of each variable and the connection relationship between each variable were visualized. The method proposed in this study was applied to review the common structural rules (CSR), and its effectiveness was evaluated by showing a high rate of variable recognition and indexing accuracy.

Application of mixed reality technology to ship manufacturing process

Y Mimori, Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.

In recent years, the evolution of so-called XR technologies and devices such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) has been remarkable, and has spread widely, especially in the game and amusement industries. XR technology is also used in some products in the manufacturing industry. Widespread use of XR technology in design and production is one way to support Japan's manufacturing industry, which is expected to experience labor shortages due to a shrinking population. In particular, AR/MR is an epoch-making technology that merges the real world with the virtual world, allowing users to experience the work that will be completed in some days or months ahead, and to perform more efficient work by displaying construction instructions and design information on actual workpiece.

Since the 2000s, the Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Division has been promoting the digitalization of shipyards using the 3D viewer (HullViewer/FitViewer) developed in-house. The 3D Viewer has a dedicated function to support the shipbuilding design and manufacturing process and is used in many other shipyards in Japan.

As the next step, we are working to further improve productivity and quality by introducing MR technology to our production sites that allows workers to experience a more realistic virtual space.

This paper reports the progress of development and application of MR system for shipbuilding based on Hololens2 of Microsoft.

Sustainable Ship design with Modular Shipbuilding approach

R Audoire, Dassault Systemes

The present paper presents the approach used for the European project called NAVAIS (New Advanced Value Added Innovation in Shipbuilding) to develop a ship design and construction approach that minimizes the impact on the environment.
The approach includes a specific attention to Underwater Noises, Vibration Noises, and Propulsion Reduction thanks to simulation technics and solutions.
The approach also focusses on modular design, to foster re-use of standard modules, and digital collaboration platform technics between all actors.
The overall process relies on Model Based System Engineering (MBSE), and allows to move from an Engineering To Order (ETO) conventional ship design method, to a Configuration To Order (CTO) method.
Another benefit of this new approach is the ability for the class society to pre-approve the various pre-designed systems modules in advance, thus saving time during the final approval process.
The paper presents the research work that has been achieved on that topic so far, and will leverage demos and videos that have been produced by the members of the project.

A position estimation system for indoor workshops making use of maximum likelihood estimation in Weibull distribution model of wireless LAN

H Kimura, Kyushu University

In the shipyard, it is required to obtain the position of people and goods in order to manage people, objects, improve work placement, and secure workers' safety. Although the mainstream of location estimation is GPS, it can not be used for position detection at indoor workshops. Meanwhile, the infrastructure of the wireless LAN has been in place in recent factories, and if these can be used for position detection, the installation cost of facilities for position detection can be reduced. In this research, we investigate a location estimation method based on a certain statistical algorithm using radio field intensity distribution map of unspecified number of wireless LANs without specifying the access point installation site of wireless LAN, and verify the position estimation accuracy in several indoor workshops.

Autonomous Mobile Robots introduction in shipyards' manufacturing process

C Dentesano, Fincanteri

In the context of an exponential growth of digitalization in the naval production process, the introduction of emerging technologies becomes a key point for the future competitiveness of companies. As a matter of fact, it is fundamental to optimize the process as a whole, exploiting newest solutions to improve production tracking, quality control and time-saving.
Specifically, autonomous mobile robot technologies (AMR) are becoming increasingly relevant in recent years, thanks to the advances in the scientific community and to the growing number of market options.
In this scenario, it was decided to use AMRs to face different problems in the shipyard, such as autonomous inspections and material transport, in order to provide our employees with a concrete and automated support during the tasks of every day. As a result, our work led to a cloud ecosystem where our workers have the possibility to assign specific tasks to robots, like setting up real stocktaking missions or making requests for missing material, while putting their effort in more worthwhile activities. Humans and different kinds of mobile robots can operate within the same environment without hindering each other, and the autonomous mode can be easily turned into a controlled one.
In this paper, we are going to present the research and development journey which took us to the deployment of a concrete solution for improving both efficiency and quality of our shipyards, which fits perfectly into the framework of digital innovation of our company.

Virtual reality beyond design reviews in shipbuilding : the need for industry-tailored immersive data interaction.

N Fourrier, Segula Technologies

In the context of ship outfitting, and more generally in shipbuilding, the potential of virtual reality (VR) as a visualization tool has been widely demonstrated in the literature. For example, its effective use as a design review tool has been proven in many fields. While many conditions must be met for VR to be widely adopted in the shipbuilding industry context, it primarily must be seamlessly integrated into current workflows. To do so, the shipbuilding industry will likely first need to tame its data. Indeed, the use of efficient knowledge and data-bases, such as the building information models (BIM) used in architecture, accessible throughout the product lifecycle, could significantly improve our ability to integrate VR in present-day processes. However, text input techniques in VR are cumbersome and inefficient and do not allow for an easy exploration and manipulation of such knowledge bases. There is a need for novel VR input techniques, designed with industrial use in mind, that are efficient and easy-to-learn. We argue that such new techniques combined with easily consumable data would allow VR to be used as a manipulation tool for collaborative and interactive design purposes such as ship outfitting. In that respect, we propose a new VR text-entry technique based on handwriting recognition (HWR). A comparative user study, yet to be carried out, will confirm whether or not HWR could rival current techniques in terms of input speed, precision and cognitive load without a need for training.

Streamlining the ship structural optimization process by using an early 3D product model

T Masui, NAPA Japan

Optimization of ship structure has been a target for ship designers ever since the beginning of the modern shipbuilding industries. Total optimization is a challenging task because of the many dependencies, starting from the local production facilities up to geopolitics and world economy. At the same time, class societies’ rules and regulations are continuously evolving and guiding the shipbuilders around the world in their use of more advanced methods and tools, which will further facilitate the optimization of structures against the latest knowledge. The new rules and dedicated software for utilizing these will bring new challenges for the ship design process, which is getting more complex, with iteration processes taking considerably longer calendar time. This may affect ship builders’ competitiveness in launching new products and limit the use of the full range of all the new technological knowledge and possibilities for structural optimization. This paper presents some results of a project, in which the optimization process is built inside one technology platform. This platform combines the necessary modelling work, FEM based rule check and further weight and other calculations in one automated and streamlined process. This will have a tremendous effect on the throughput time of iteration cycles. The paper will present the process and technologies used for integrating the different components to the common design platform. It will also show some results achieved in a commercial cargo ship design.

Vehicle Hot Spot Detector And Dangerous Goods Detector To Fire Ignition Prevention In Ro-Ro Ships

Á Marrero, CENIT Research Group of CIMNE

Statistics show that 90% of ro-pax ship fires are initiated in the carried cargo (vehicles and cargo units), which can be everything from brand new to poorly maintained, rebuilt or unsafe. Nowadays, all cargo (except dangerous goods) is loaded without consideration to the hazards they pose, opening the door to improvements from the fire prevention point of view by means of a custom and objective management of the units based on the potential hazards they involve. Thus, the need of providing innovative mechanisms supporting the screening stage, arise. Within the LASH FIRE project, an H2020 funded project (Grant Agreement #814975) in which this publication is framed, research has been carried out addressing automatic identification of different types of cargo during the stowage in order to provide added-value about cargo status. The technical approach presented here takes the systems currently used in parking lots, tunnels, tolls or logistics as starting point but applied to the maritime environment. Specifically, both Vehicle Hot Spot Detector (VHD) and Vehicle Dangerous Goods Detector (VDG) have been modified and extended with developments that now consider usual loading units in the above-mentioned type of ships. Also, a refactoring has been performed aiming at adapting the system to the environmental conditions in which it must work.The VHD and VDG systems delivers the exact length and volume of the vehicles and indicate the licence-/ dangerous good plate. The dates are used in cloud based new online stowage tools for loading optimization. This enables more safety on board.

Stowage Planning Tool Supporting Fire Risk Management: A New Way For Cargo Distribution

F Rodero, CENIT Research Group of CIMNE

Feeding from the outcomes obtained after performing a risk analysis based on historical data to prevent cargo ignition on Ro-Ro, Ro-Pax and Car-Carrier ships, this paper describes the foundation for the development of a tool supporting fire risk management during the cargo distribution stage of the stowage. In this process, cargo other than dangerous goods are loaded without consideration to the hazards they may involve, leaving room for improvements from the ignition prevention perspective. The boundary conditions of the problem being addressed are defined by the scope of LASH FIRE, an H2020 funded project (Grant Agreement #814975) in which this publication is framed. An approach to both design and specification is presented, aiming to manage all the optimization actions needed to obtain the best placement of cargo units, understanding best as the combination that minimizes the overall risk of fire. This way, a detailed description of inputs being used and constraints taken into consideration together with an explanation about how the tool can interact with existing software of operators are included. Details on the implementation are also covered, showing how the algorithm can play a key role during decision-making to get safer voyages. Finally, conclusions based on the outputs obtained after testing the tool in generic representatives for the abovementioned ship types can be found in this paper.

Smart Digital Shipyards with Model-Based Manufacturing

O Chouche, Dassalt Systemes SE,

Smart Digital Shipyards covers the entire life cycle of shipbuilding.  From requirements, to Design and Engineering, to Digital Manufacturing, to Manufacturing execution.  Model-Based Manufacturing will ensure all the information required for shipbuilding will be available in a unified model within a collaborative platform.  This will seamlessly support all the manufacturing processes without having to go through non-value add activities.

Until today, many shipbuilders still use disjointed primitive tools to manage sophisticated processes.  Tools such as Excel spreadsheets as well as lists and 2D drawings printed on paper. Production teams manage warehouses with tools developed over a decade ago.  Shipbuilders also address production issues inefficiently – they often rack up a significant amount of additional work hours, going beyond the agreed project timeline and incurring massive extra costs.  In the past, this approach may have been acceptable, but today’s environment is less forgiving.

This paper will introduce the major transformation undergoing at some leading shipyards, by replacing the traditional document based processes for a model-based manufacturing approach leveraging ship virtual twins from design to production, achieving a strategic move towards ‘Smart Digital Shipyards’.

The presentation is highlighting the related business changes and platform technologies involved in the model-based shipbuilding transformation, illustrated by examples of a successful implementation at a leading Chinese shipyard witnessing major benefits of time, cost and quality on their first projects fully executed with a model-based strategy.

A major component of smart digital shipyards is the connectivity of major manufacturing equipment that are essential to the manufacturing execution process.  Equipment such as pre-treatment lines, panel lines, and assembly lines.  Also, the integration of Internet of Things (IoT) to evolve shipyards for the modern era.  Sensors and monitoring systems can communicate huge quantities of data that will enhance the capacity for predicting and greatly reducing operational downtime.  A connected shipyard can improve planning activities and reduce maintenance costs through predictive maintenance.   

At the core of digital shipyards is the adoption of model based enterprise approach.  This approach provides the ability for the information to flow seamlessly from one process to the next.  No need for translation or migration of data between different processes.  It is one single model that supports all the processes of the entire lifecycle.  Specifically, during each process, the model is enriched with additional information which is then used by other enterprise users and downstream processes.

The 3DEXPERIENCE platform provides all the components needed for an integrated model based enterprise solution for requirement capture, engineering, manufacturing, maintenance, and operations.

A Mobile Application to Assess the Stability of Small Fishing Boats

A Grech La Rosa, University College London

Indonesia is one of the top three countries in the world for fisher fatalities and this is due to a lack of stability monitoring, poor vessel design and the fishers’ poor safety culture.  Safety through using technology, in particular specifying stability awareness has been identified as a key aspect to prevent capsize and sinking.

Despite the low technology uptake by Indonesian fishers, they are known to make extensive use of smart mobile phones as a primary form of communication.  These devices are equipped with an array of sensors that can be used by different mobile applications.

This paper proposes the use of a mobile application to aid Indonesian fishers assess the stability of their vessel by using results from a roll decay test or real time roll motion data monitored when operating at sea.

For the roll decay test, the mobile application uses the onboard gyroscope to record the roll angle time series to quantify the roll period.  An offline calculation is then carried out to approximate the vessel’s metacentric height, that is visually interpreted by a traffic light system.  This gives the fishermen an indication of whether the vessel is stable or not.  Should the boat be unstable, additional guidance is provided to improve the vessel’s stability.

The real time monitoring system alerts the fishers when the thresholds are exceeded, to make them aware of the increased risk.  This is increasingly important as the vessel loads fish and encounters waves.

A case study demonstrating the functionality of the application will be provided using full scale data.

Development of Shipping Market Forecasting System Using Vessel Movement Data and its Practical Application

Y Wada, Hiroshima University

Shipping is an industry in which the changes in freight rate has been extremely drastic. Therefore, it is important for shipping companyto develop a forecasting method of freight rate. In recent years, big data and deep learning methods have been developing rapidly, and these are applied in a variety of fields. In shipping industry,the details on movement data of each ships can be available by development of automatic identification system (AIS). Therefore, it is expected to define a practical forecasting model combing AIS data and statistical data, and using deep learning method. In our previous study, we have proposed a method to develop forecasting model for freight rate by conbing AIS data and statistical data using deep learning. As a result, we have confirmed that highly accurate model can be develoepd using these data and the method. However, there were some issues as follows:
・The range of applicability of the forecasting model is not clear.
・The accuracy of forecasting model is not sufficiently understood compared to the predictions of experts.
・It has not been possible to verify whether the forecasting model can be used in practice.
Based on the above issues, this study analyzes the causes of deterioration in forecast accuracy from the perspective of internal factors of the forecasting model. In addition, we will develop a prediction system and veryfy the applicability in practice. Moreover, we confirm the superiority of forecasting model against experts prediction using developed system.

Development of a Pipe Fabrication Process Determination System Using Graph Database and Process Simulation

Y Mihara, Yokohama National University

As the importance of piping in shipbuilding increases, streamlining pipe fabrication processes has become one of the most important issues. However, since pipe fabrication processes are very complicated, it has not been adequately digitized and modeled.
This paper proposed a system to automatically determine the pipe fabrication process considering the design of the target pipe and various information in a factory. In the developed system, tasks are generated using the information of the parts and these relationships registered in a graph database. This system also generates all conceivable fabrication processes by allocating workplaces to each extracted task.
Optimal fabrication process is selected by executing the production simulation using the information of target factory, the information of each fabrication process and target product generated on the graph database.
The developed system is applied to three virtual pipe fabrication factory which has the same mission of producing a target pipe. Results show that the optimal process determined by the developed system is dependent on the configuration of the pipe factory and the capability of facilities and workers.
In addition, the developed system is applied to a real pipe fabrication factory. We can confirm that the process determined by the developed system is reasonable compared to the currently adopted process.

Interceptor Effects on a 3D Rectangular Plates in a Calm Water by Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

A M F Putra, Osaka University

Interceptor is an additional device designed to improve boat efficiency by altering its running attitude. Interceptors are recently used for trim control and steering, in order to reduce uneven motions of the boats, especially in the early stages of the trip. Controlling trim during the trip can result in a significant reduction in water resistance, resulting in improved efficiencies. This paper focused on the hydrodynamics effects on resistance and trim of 3D rectangular plate in addition of interceptors in calm water by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Various configuration of blade deployment, by depth and angle of attack (AoA), were used in the simulations. Investigation has been carried out by using Open source CFD code, OpenFoam. The results of this study generally meet a good agreement with most of previous works related to interceptor’s study. This study found that AoA employment at the interceptor with typical blade depth height shows better lift to drag ratio in comparison with interceptor without AoA employment. Moreover, those configurations also produced better trim angle reduction which resulting better running attitude. This study also shows that the efficiency of the interceptor is related to the boundary layer thickness.


T Masui, NAPA Japan

In recent years, various classification societies and shipbuilders have conducted R&D activities on the use of 3D models created during the design phase for approval (so-called 3D Model-Based Approval, hereafter “3DMBA”). 3DMBA is an attractive concept that could bring digital transformation to the ship design process, but it also poses significant practical challenges. In particular, there is an issue about the division of design work and information in structural design, which requires the use of different software applications for different tasks such as 3D modeling, rule calculation, direct strength calculation, and 2D drawing. This causes a situation whereby each time a design change happens, it is necessary to modify the data in each software, resulting in frequent duplication of work. This is also an error-prone process, because of possible discrepancies between various types of information in each software. The introduction of 3DMBA under such circumstances would further increase the workload of shipyards, as they would have to repeat this duplication of work on each software application to complete a precise 3D model. The authors have been conducting a project in order to realize an efficient 3DMBA process, and they concluded at ICCAS2019 that the key to achieving 3DMBA is to integrate the engineering process for rule and direct strength calculations into 3D CAD, and to implement viewer functions for efficient plan approval in order to enable shipyards to easily create 3D approval models. This paper presents the latest achievements and future prospects of the project

An expanded application of Basic Ship-Planning Support System using Big Data in Maritime Logistics for Panamax and Capesize Dry Bulk Carriers

D A F Muzhoffar, Hiroshima University

The fluctuations in the global industrial cargoes require continuous ship advancement. Meanwhile, digitized shipping generates big data that opens a possibility to understand the actual and prospective circumstances. Thus, we have developed a basic ship-planning support system utilizing big data in maritime logistics. Prior studies enhanced a ship allocation algorithm that can consider the shipping cost (COST) and greenhouse gas (GHG) features. However, the previously built system was applied specifically for Capesize dry bulk carrier operating in the time-charter contract. This study presents an expansion of our system applicability to cover the target ship of Panamax and Capesize dry bulk carrier. We newly develop the cargo movement model to accommodate monthly cargo movement for those target ship. Moreover, we reinforce the ship allocation algorithm to take into account the target ship typical shipping scheme; voyage-charter contract. Therefore, the system enables fleet composition optimization at the operation-level by considering the COST and GHG, which operate in the manner of both time-charter and voyage-charter contracts. Finally, the ships in demand at various scopes can be observed depending on the determined simulation scenarios, such as all ship replacement while preserving existing fleet composition, an optimization of fleet allocation using only the existing ships, and an optimization of fleet allocation with the new ships presence.

Drawing design of hull block structure based on secondary development of AutoCAD

Z Hu, Wuhan University of Technology

At present, under the traditional two-dimensional drawing mode of AutoCAD, hull drawings in small and medium-sized shipyards not only has relatively low drawing efficiency (there are many missing parts in the drawing), but also has poor three-dimensional interaction between engineering drawings and ship three-dimensional models. The programming language is used for the secondary development of AutoCAD software to design a special software system, which can realize rapid two-dimensional drawing according to the imported ship segmentation model. It can analyze the modules of engineering management, configuration management and drawings, and finally selects the drawing test of hull block through-hole parts. The results show that the drawing design software of hull section structure proposed in this paper can effectively improve the drawing efficiency and accuracy.

A social – network based visualisation platform for monitoring naval ships design

G Anagnostopoulos, University of Strathclyde

A major hindrance in ship design and manufacturing processes is the duet of time-delays and over-costing induced by rework tasks, dedicated to remedy wrongly implemented resources (techniques, equipment, human allocation etc.) by the design and construction team. The scale of the delivery delays varies according to the size and organisational management of the project, from a few months for well managed programs, to years for large and inadequately managed projects. The r